The information contained in this Request for Proposals document (“RFP”) or subsequently provided to Applicants, whether verbally or in documentary or any other form by or on behalf of Family Homes Funds Limited (In Formation “the Company”) , or any of its employees or advisers, is provided on the terms and conditions set out in this RFP and such other terms and conditions subject to which such information is provided.
FHFL, its employees and advisers make no representation or warranty and shall have no liability to any person including any Applicant under any law, statute, rules or regulations or tort, principles of restitution or unjust enrichment or otherwise for any loss, damages, cost or expense which may arise from or be incurred or suffered on account of anything contained in this RFP or otherwise, including the accuracy, adequacy, correctness, reliability or completeness of the RFP and any assessment, assumption, statement or information contained therein or deemed to form part of this RFP or arising in any way in this Selection Process.
FHFL also accepts no liability of any nature whether resulting from negligence or otherwise, howsoever caused, arising from reliance of any Applicant upon the statements contained in this RFP.
The Company may in its absolute discretion, but without being under any obligation to do so, update, amend or supplement the information, assessment or assumption contained in this RFP.
The issue of this RFP does not imply that FHFL is bound to select an Applicant or to appoint the Selected Applicant, as the case may be for the consultancy and the Company reserves the right to reject all or any of the proposals without assigning any reason whatsoever. The Applicants shall bear all costs associated with or relating to the preparation and submission of Proposals including but not limited to preparation, copying, postage, delivery fees, expenses associated with any demonstrations or presentations which may be required by FHFL or any other costs incurred in connection with or relating to its Proposal.
All such costs and expenses will remain with the Applicant and FHFL shall not be liable in any manner whatsoever for the same or for any other costs or other expenses incurred by an Applicant in preparation or submission of the Proposal, regardless of the conduct or outcome of the Selection Process.
FHFL requires the services of an Environmental and Social Safeguards specialist to undertake the following assignment: Prepare an Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF). The objective of the ESMF is to provide a unified process to address all environmental, social and climate change safeguard issues of the development and infrastructure components of the Funds from preparation, through appraisal and approval, to implementation. Furthermore, the ESMF shall ensure compliance with Country Systems and Development Financial Institutions’ requirements such as the African Development Bank’s Integrated Safeguards System (ISS) and the IFC Performance Standards.
The ESMF shall describe the process for screening, assessing, addressing and managing environmental, social and climate change issues for site-specific project activities and subprojects that will be identified during project preparation or have yet to be identified at the time of preparation. The ESMF shall cover all project components within the Family Homes Funds Limited’s 500,000 housing units project.
The ESMF for the FHF shall be developed under the supervision of the Strategy and Business Performance Manager.
The bids should be submitted in accordance with the specifications, terms, and conditions shown in this Request for Proposals (RfP). This RfP is being released to identify an experienced Consultant to carry out the services as detailed in this document. Prospective respondents are advised to read this information carefully prior to submitting a proposal.
BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT
Nigeria’s rapid population and urbanization growth rate are key drivers of the pressure on the demand for decent and affordable housing and investment in social infrastructure. The country has an estimated total population of about 195 million people and is the largest in Africa. The population growth is at the rate of 2.6% and marked by increasing rate of urbanization estimated at 4.3% per annum with the urban population estimated at 50.3% in 2018. This situation has resulted in a huge housing deficit, which is estimated to be up to a backlog of 17 million units in 2019. In addition to the housing supply deficit, effective demand is constrained by low household income, limited range of available and affordable mortgage products, high costs of borrowing and general difficulty in accessing credit. Inadequate access to housing finance is thus the result of a combination of high interest rates; unavailability of long-term loans and large deposit requirements by most lenders, besides, informal renting which utilizes a large percentage of household incomes. This inevitably limits contribution of the housing and mortgage finance sector to economic growth. As of 2018, the share of mortgage debt to GDP ratio was very limited and estimated at below 1%, provided through 36 mortgage finance institutions, making mortgage market expansion and access to affordable housing finance a top priority for the country.
In response, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has launched a number of initiatives, including Family Homes Funds Limited (FHFL) to help address the housing deficit. FHFL was established in 2016, as a Private Limited Liability Company with initial shareholding by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) Ministry of Finance and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority (NSIA), to act as a catalyst to the delivery of affordable housing and mortgage finance. The overall mission of the FHFL is to provide 500,000 affordable homes and to create 1.5 million jobs through their housing value chain. Given the complexity of the housing challenges in Nigeria, including poor adherence to industry standards and limited artisanal skills, FHFL was designed to play a broad development role throughout the supply and demand side of the housing value chain. Its involvement is set up to be innovative, diverse and impactful to include the promotion of supply of affordable housing units, help lower the barriers for lower to middle income earners seeking to access mortgage finance products and promote job creation. The FGN is consolidating these efforts by deepening the enabling business environment and putting in place an organization which can support the delivery of affordable housing units.
FHFL is one of the initiatives for job creation by the Economic Growth and Recovery Plan (EGRP) of 2017-2020. The EGRP has an ambitious target to reduce unemployment from 13.9% as of Q3-2016 to 11.23% by 2020. This translates to the creation of an average of 3.7 million jobs per annum. Overall, the EGRP was planned to generate 3.8 million and 4.3 million new jobs in 2018 and 2019 respectively, with the launch of key government programs to mobilize private capital through Government seed funding in roads, housing, and agriculture (e.g. the Road Trust Fund, FHFL). For the housing sector, the construction of 2,700 housing units in the short-term is expected to create 105,000 direct jobs annually and gradually increase to 10,000 housing units per annum by 2020 through 20,000 pilot social housing units. All these efforts to create demand for labour are to help curb the high unemployment levels, particularly among the youth. Yet, major skills deficit across artisanal trades in housing construction and building services limits opportunities for Nigerians to take up durable jobs and entrepreneurship openings in the sector. Between the third quarters of 2014 and 2018, national unemployment rates increased by 13.8% and underemployment by 7.7%to reach 23.1% and 20.1% respectively. Youth unemployment rates more than doubled from 13.4% to 29.7% over the same period, out of which 40% for women. The government has therefore prioritized skills acquisition interventions targeted at labour intensive sectors to meet the requisite industry labour demand.
SCOPE OF WORK
The scope of the assignment will be limited to the following components hereafter known as FHFL:
Component 1: Provision of 500,000 units of affordable homes
This component entails the provision of 500,000 units of affordable homes across the country to reduce the ever-increasing housing challenges in the country.
Component 2: Creation of employment to meet the requisite industry labour demand.
This component entails prioritization of skill acquisition interventions at labour intensive sectors like the construction sector to meet the requisite industry labour demand. This is aimed at reducing the increasing youth unemployment in Nigeria.
The Consultant is required as part of the assignment to engage relevant stakeholders of the program (in-country consultations and field visits where possible) where the data should cover the national to the lowest level where subprojects will be proposed, approved and implemented. The Consultant is also required to undertake a detailed analysis of the environmental and social risks posed by the proposed project interventions and compile their findings in an ESMF report that will be used to manage the environmental and social risks arising from the subprojects. The ESMF should be formulated in line with the guidance provided in the AfDB ISS, particularly Annex 9 of the Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures (ESAP). Annex 9 (format of an ESMF) of the AfDB’s ESAP is reproduced in Annex I of this TOR.
The Consultant’s Scope of Work for the preparation of the ESMF for the FHFL program, includes but not limited to the following:
- Review relevant requirements of the environmental and social risk management in programs financed by DFIs such as the AfDB, IFC and the World Bank Group. This review should cover requirements specifically for an environmental and social management framework (ESMF).
- Review the Integrated Safeguards System of the African Development Bank with emphasis on the requirements for an ESMF.
- Review relevant and related documentation on E&S risk management especially ESIAs, ESMPs, RAPs, ESMSs and ESMFs for programs under implementation in the Nigerian Housing Sector.
- Summarize the project descriptions, including a typology of the potential subprojects to be financed, based on potential size/scale of subprojects and the environmental and social impacts and risks, paying particular attention to how subprojects will be identified, prepared, approved and implemented, and how funds will flow to approved subprojects.
- Prepare an overview of the environmental and social contexts relevant to the projects, including an analysis of the legislative, regulatory and administrative regimes (i.e.: protection of natural habitats and cultural heritage, pollution control, resettlement, Health and Safety etc.) within which the project will operate, with a focus on requirements applicable to the planning/design, approval and implementation of subprojects.
- Collect environmental and social baseline information at Federal and State levels with stipulation of required information and studies to be conducted within a given framework.
- Outline procedures for conducting an appropriate level of environmental and social assessment of subprojects, consistent with the AfDB’s Operational Safeguards (Oss), identifying the impacts to be managed or mitigated.
- Prepare the procedures for identifying and screening environmental and social issues of subprojects during project implementation (screening checklists and identification of cumulative, indirect and induced impacts, in line with relevant AfDB ISS and country systems. Screening has the following purposes:
- screen subprojects for potential environment and social risks and impacts;
- identify applicable E&S standards;
- determine the E&S category of the subproject; and
- determine the specific instrument(s) to be prepared for each subproject.
A checklist is often useful in screening E&S issues. In this section, the screening checklist should be described and the mechanisms of its use on subprojects are to be presented. The actual screening checklist should be presented as an Annex of the ESMF.
- Prepare a procedure for scoping of environmental and social issues and determining appropriate and required safeguards instruments for site-specific subprojects that will be identified during project implementation. This section shall outline information on the type of management instrument (for example, full ESIA, ESMP, RAP, Indigenous peoples plan, audits, ).
- Prepare procedures for preparing and approving site-specific safeguard instruments. These procedures should include:
- A framework of actions to guide the development of Environmental and Social Management Plans of subprojects (including identification of mitigation measures;
- The objective of each measure, its specific implementation requirements and responsibilities;
- Its’ technical and operational requirements, including timing,
- The targets to be achieved and performance indicators for monitoring and supervising the adequacy of safeguards implementation;
- Procedures and management plans to identify and avoid impacts on physical cultural resources in line with the AfDB Operational Safeguards 2 requirements;
- Generic safety measures for infrastructure and construction activities.
- Determination of institutional capacity for implementing the ESMF. This should include an analysis of the authority and capability of the relevant institutions at the Local Government, State and Federal levels and in-house capacity of FHFL to manage, monitor and supervise the implementation of the ESMF. This should also include a description of the institutional arrangements for project implementation with a focus on points of accountability (who will do what) for specific functions on environmental and social safeguards. This should include a clear definition of roles and responsibilities of project staff and associated agencies involved in subproject implementation and application of: environmental and social review; preparation and implementation of safeguard instruments; monitoring and evaluation; training; staffing; budgeting; and financial support.
- Outline the requirements for consultation with local communities and stakeholders, both during subproject preparation and ESMP development, and during subproject implementation.
- Outline the grievance redress mechanism to provide stakeholders and potentially affected communities and households avenues to provide feedback or grievances, and receive responses, with regard to the implementation of subprojects throughout their lifecycle.
- Outline the requirements for monitoring and subproject supervision to ensure that the management measures are satisfactorily implemented and that the agreed targets for environmental and social protection are achieved. A supervision plan should be prepared with guidance on thresholds or triggers for initiating corrective action and safeguard performance indicators to enable the Bank to evaluate compliance with the ISS, country systems and determine the need for corrective actions. Additionally, the scope, timing and responsibilities for reporting on the ESMF should be included. This should cover specific actions to be taken by the client to report in a timely manner.
- Where needed, outline the requirements for capacity strengthening or training deemed appropriate for the borrower or client involved in the ESMF implementation or monitoring. This may include the establishment or expansion of an environmental and social management unit within the borrower or client’s organization. Other elements may include technical cooperation programs, equipment and supplies procurement and organizational changes.
- Where needed, outline the requirements for technical assistance to communities, service providers and public sector institutions to support the implementation of the ESMF. This may involve supporting studies examining, for example, changing access to natural resources, potential impacts upon a protected area, or potential impacts on Indigenous people.
- Where needed, prepare a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) to address potential land acquisition or related issues in line with AfDB’s OS 2 requirements and those of the Federal laws and regulations of Nigeria. The RPF should also include a screening criterion, eligibility criteria, implementation procedures, institutional arrangements, valuation methods, generic entitlement matrix, grievance and monitoring mechanisms, expected budget and capacity development plan (where necessary). The RPF should also include procedures to develop a Resettlement Action Plan which includes a Livelihood Restoration Plan (if applicable).
- Where needed, prepare an Indigenous Peoples Planning Framework (IPPF) which includes the following: institutional framework, an implementation guide to conduct a Social Assessment, free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) process with affected communities, the preparation of site-specific Indigenous Peoples Plans (IP plans) or similar instruments (i.e.: Community Participation Plans), grievance and monitoring framework, budget, capacity development plan and other design features in-line with the ISS.
- Summarize the in-country disclosure and approval requirements as well as those of the AfDB and other institutions as applicable to the subprojects under the program.
- Based on the assessments above, outline an estimated budget for the implementation of the ESMF and/or the RPF for subprojects.
The expected deliverables of the assignment are as follows:
- An inception report inclusive of a detailed work plan and schedule by 28th of February 2020
- A draft ESMF/RPF by 20th of March 2020, including:
- a summary of all findings from the stakeholder analysis, and the impact assessment of the subprojects in accordance with the ISS;
- recommendations of mitigation measures for adverse impacts;
- summary of consultations undertaken;
- screening procedures to be followed for subprojects;
- ESMF/RPF monitoring plans/programs;
- See Annex 1 of this ToR for additional guidance.
- Final ESMF/RPF report on or before 10th of April 2020
- An Executive Summary of the ESMF that includes information summarized from the ESMF/RPF and the results of the public consultations carried out.
- Annexes, as applicable, and may include the following:
- Exclusion list (list of activities that the programme will not finance)
- Screening checklist; the purpose of screening is to assess the potential of subprojects or activities to cause significant adverse impacts on the environment and society; identify the appropriate safeguard instruments and mitigation measures to manage impacts.
- A matrix or table will be developed which outlines the severity of the potential impact, whether it triggers a policy (OS), and how it should then be considered.
The consultant must deliver within the dates stated above.
All of the procedures used shall be consistent with applicable national and local environmental assessment and planning/permitting procedures.
The Individual or lead consultant should meet the following requirements:
- Hold at least a Master’s degree in Environmental Studies, Natural Resource Management, Environmental Policy or a related discipline;
- Have a minimum of ten (10) years of relevant professional experience in areas related to environmental and natural resource management, environmental assessment, environmental monitoring and environmental stewardship;
- Have a good knowledge and experience in developing and managing the implementation of Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs), Environmental and Social Management Plans (ESMP), Environmental Management Frameworks, the social aspects of development projects (health and safety aspects, involuntary resettlement and gender issues, etc.), monitoring, evaluation and conformity assessment;
- Have good knowledge and practical experience of the ISS, including the safeguards policies, procedures and practices of development agencies of key bilateral and multilateral partners in Nigeria or in regional member countries.
- Be experienced in multi-criteria assessments, stakeholder engagement and consultation, community participation; analytical skills to assess institutional capacity and to design/ review practical arrangements for implementing complex projects.
- Be results-oriented, able to work in a team, a meticulous analyst with a sense of detail, a persuasive communicator and an excellent copywriter;
- Listening to clients – providing effective services and solutions to staff beyond presenting past challenges and able to gain respect through the depth of demonstrated expertise, effectively managing various clients and country situations;
- Innovation and Change – Constantly seek more efficient and practical methods for the delivery of services and products as well as departmental process management and propose new ways to improve the quality and relevance of products and services;
- Demonstrated ability to work effectively in a multicultural environment and to develop effective working relationships with clients and colleagues;
- Have excellent technical and analytical skills, with a proven track record in operational and political work on environmental and social issues;
- Have a support base of experts in the construction and infrastructure sectors;
- Have solid practical experience in the evaluation, integration and monitoring of social development concerns at the level of Bank operations.
- Must be able to communicate effectively (written and oral) in English.
- Should have a mastery in the use of MS Office software and have a good knowledge of SAP.
PROPOSAL GUIDELINES AND FORMAT
Prospective Consultants are required to submit their proposals in the following format:
- Approach and Strategy: Kindly provide a brief statement on the following.
- An understanding of the role as detailed in this RfP;
- Detailed workplan for execution of the tasks. Workplan shall include indicative dates of completion;
B. Corporate Profile: This should include the following information:
- Corporate profile document of Consultant
- Similar experience in past projects and their coverage area.
Consultant shall demonstrate ability to render the required services by providing evidence of similar projects successfully executed, including references and recommendation letters.
- Financials/Consultancy Fees
A schedule of proposed fees with indicative payment terms.
The following guidelines are provided for standardizing the preparation and submission of proposals. The intent is to assist respondents in the preparation of their submission and to assist FHFL by simplifying the review process, providing standards for comparison of submissions. Statements submitted in response to this RfP shall include a complete response to the requirements in this section in the order presented.
Proposals shall be printed double-sided, submitted on standard A4 paper, with easy to read font size and style. Pages shall be numbered and bound (spiral/ three-ring binder). Tabbed dividers should separate and identify the response items described below.
Respondents must submit one signed original, two copies, and one electronic (USB flash drive preferred) copy of the by 18th February 2020, 12:00pm. Also send proposal to firstname.lastname@example.org
Proposals shall contain the following information in the order listed:
- Introductory Letter
The introductory letter should be addressed to.
The Managing Director.
Family Homes Funds Limited,
3rd Floor Sinoki House, Ademulegun Street, CBD- Abuja.
Attention – Head, Human Resources & Administration
The letter should include contact name, mailing address and telephone number of the Consultant. The cover letter shall include a statement acknowledging the conditions stated in the RfP, referencing any exceptions contained in the response, and be signed by the Consultant.
- The Proposal
The proposal shall include:
- Consultant’s detailed profile
- Approach and strategy
- Experience in past projects
- Financial (Consultancy Fee)
- Conflict of Interest Statement
Submit a statement regarding any activities or relationships of the responder that might create a conflict of interest for the responder or FHFL, and, if such activities or relationships exist, a description of the facts, legal implications, and possible effects sufficient to permit FHFL to appreciate the significance of the conflict and react as appropriate.
Note any exceptions to the RfP requirements in their entirety.
- Supportive Information
This section may include graphs, charts photos, maps, references, etc., in support of the respondent’s qualifications and competence.
EVALUATION AND SELECTION CRITERIA
- Project Selection Process
In order to be considered, a proposal consistent with the terms of this RfP must be submitted. The responsesto this RfP shall be reviewed by a nominated committee for completeness and evaluated against the stated criteria. The committee will then select and recommend the most competent Consultant to oversee the various construction projects around the states.
The selected Consultant will be invited to a kick-off meeting with the main objective of reviewing the work plan and expectations.
- Evaluation of Proposals
Applications will be evaluated, and the project manager selected based on the following criteria:
- Approach and Strategy (40%)
- Similar experience and accomplishment of similar project (30%)
C. Corporate Profile (10%)
- Financials (20%)
- Late Proposals
Proposals arriving after the specified date and time will not be considered, nor will late proposals beopened. Each respondent assumes responsibility for timely submission of its proposal.
- Withdrawal or Modifications of Proposals
Any proposal may be withdrawn or modified by a written request signed by the respondents and received by FHFL prior to the final time and date for the receipt of proposals. Once the deadline is past, respondents are obligated to fulfill the terms of their proposal.
- Proposal Acceptance and Rejection
FHFL reserves the right to accept any proposal, to reject any and all proposals, and to call for new proposals, or dispense with the proposal process.
- Proposal Evaluation and Award
Evaluation will be made based on the weighted scoring as noted in the Evaluation and Selection Criteria section. A constituted committee led by the Head of HR & Admin shall evaluate proposals submitted by all consultants.
Candidates that were not selected shall be notified in writing.
Nothing herein shall obligate FHFL to award a contract to any responding application.
FORMAT OF REPORT: ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
Overview of the ESMF.
This section shall determine the scope of the assessment (E&S issues to consider), level of effort, and the tasks required to carry out the ESMF. It also shall outline the appropriateness of preparing an ESMF as an instrument for the management of the environmental and social safeguards issues.
|3-Description of program operation:
This section shall identify the key components of the program, policy or plan. It shall lay out the main objectives of the program, policy or plan by identifying the anticipated economic, social or cultural changes as well as direct and indirect expected outcomes. The location and intended beneficiaries of the sub-projects shall also be described in this section.
|4-Environmental and social baseline information at the national and regional level:
This section shall present a description of the existing environment, comprising the bio-physical and socio-economic conditions associated with the program, policy or plan at the national and regional level using available information resources including SESA, technical studies and other ESA studies available as reference. Key stakeholders in relation to the identified issues shall be also presented in this section.
|5-Procedures to assess potential environmental and social impacts and risks of subprojects:
The ESMF shall present the procedures that were used to assess the potential environmental and social impacts of the program, policy or plan by comparing the intended activities with the surrounding environmental and socio-cultural resources. Procedures that can be used may include information regarding the social, cultural, natural and coastal resources, etc., sourced from related literature and existing baseline conditions, visits to the sub-project site and environmental and social impacts likely to arise as analysed by the procedures mentioned above. The level of significance of the impacts should also be given.
|6-Measures to develop appropriate ESMPs for sub-projects:
Measures that will be used to develop appropriate ESMPs to ensure implementation of the ESMF at the sub-project level shall be presented in this section. These measures shall be relevant as well as take consideration the level of significance of the potential impacts outlined in the previous section. The following is to be included:
· Identification of mitigation measures
· Objectives of each mitigation measure
· Each mitigation measure’s implementation requirements and associated responsibilities
· Each mitigation measure’s technical and operational requirements, and
· Each mitigation measure’s timing
|7-Arrangements for monitoring and subproject supervision:
This part of the ESMF shall present the monitoring programs that will be introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation measures administered at the sub-project level for the program, policy or plan. The monitoring programmes should address the following:
· An evaluation of the validity of the impact predictions and strategic assessment conclusions;
· Whether the proposed measures to mitigate adverse effects and optimize benefits were actually carried out;
· An evaluation of the effectiveness of the mitigation/ optimization measures;
· To what extent the PPP purpose has been achieved and to what extent the achievement is as a result of the program, policy or plan;
· Whether the achievement is sustainable;
· Whether the achievements extend to the poorest and most marginalized levels of society;
· Identification of any further changes needed to improve environmental/ social benefits of the program, policy or plan;
· Identification of any additional strategic or project ESAs that may be needed as a result of the program, policy or plan; and
· Lessons learned from the SESA and ESMF.
The monitoring program shall clearly define roles and responsibilities for the coordination of the monitoring system, monitoring methods and indicators, procedures for regular adjustments of policy and external communication and capacity building.
|8-Arrangements for reporting:
The arrangements for reporting on the progress of the ESMF implementation shall be clearly outlined in this section including the responsibility, methods of communication, reasons for reporting, frequency of reporting results (timing) as well as the protocol to be followed when reporting.
|9-Outline of proposed mitigation and enhancement measures:
This section of the ESMF shall outline the specific measures that will be considered to mitigate/ minimize moderate and major adverse impacts. With regards to negligible and minor impacts where the project activity is not expected to cause any significant impact in such cases, best practice measures and mitigation should also be recommended. Where appropriate, measures to enhance and complement the environmental and social performance of the sub-projects can be presented. Mitigation options that shall be considered may include project modification, provision of alternatives, project timing, pollution control, compensations and relocation assistance.
|10-Requirements for training and capacity building to enable ESMF implementation:
The successful implementation of the ESMF depends on the commitment of project implementing unit and related institutions, the capacity within the institutions and the appropriate and functional institutional arrangements among others. Requirements for training and capacity building shall ensure appropriate environmental/social management upon implementation of the program, policy or plan. The institutional strengthening plan should be based on the gaps in environmental and social management skills identified at the national, regional or local level during scoping, and the future needs for improved environmental and social management.
The conclusion shall summarize the main expected environmental and social impacts and mitigation and enhancement measures that will ensure that the program/policy/plan meets the Bank’s safeguards requirements. It shall also specify the environmental and/or social loan conditions or covenants that are part of the loan agreements.
|12-Cost estimate and Sources of Funds, Schedule|
· List of consulted documents, including program-related reports
· Contact List
|Project Activity||Anticipated E & S impacts||Proposed Management Measure(s) and Objective of Management Measure(s)||Technical and Operational Requirements of Management Measure(s)||Monitoring and Reporting (including performance indicators)||Implementation Plan and Institutional Responsibilities||Timing||Cost Estimates||Consultation||Comments|
|Pre-Construction (Planning/ Design) Phase|
|Operation and Maintenance Phase|